9-3701-20-000-00. Both types of reactions were performed first using 15 g oil (PKO or SB) and, afterwards, at 100 g scale. All reactions were started by adding 10% (wenz/woil) Lipozyme TL IM to the corresponding oil (average calculated molecular weight of 716.63 or 885.17 g mol−1 for PKO and SB, respectively).21, 22 PKO and SB reaction mixtures were incubated with magnetic stirring during 90–112 h at 50 and 60 °C, respectively. The design of the experiments followed a typical study design for establishing pseudoternary phase diagrams, which are established to determine optimal oil‐surfactant ratios for formulating SMEDDS.17 In separate experiments two different grades of unmodified SBs, PKO and each of the two different types of enzymatically modified SB and PKO were mixed with a combination of two surfactants, i.e., Tween 20 and Kolliphor RH 40 (hydrophilic surfactants with a high HLB) and Capryol 90, a cosurfactant with low HLB. J-Palm Liberia. In the present study, two different modification concepts were applied and their successfulness with regard to increasing the solubilization capacity of the two natural lipids was evaluated by screening Celecoxib solubility in the different lipids, lipid miscibility with different GRAS‐listed surfactants and co‐surfactants and the emulsifying properties of the resulting mixtures. While they are great for the skin, they tend to go rancid quickly and should be avoided in large amounts. Here are a few that are the lightest feeling and absorb quickly into your skin: These oils have been proven to be non-comedogenic (won’t clog your pores) and can be used on your face or body. Values of (p < 0.05) were considered significant. I love body butter, but I have to admit that it can be really greasy and slow to absorb into my skin. In one approach, we studied lipase‐catalyzed transesterification of SB or PKO with glycerol aiming for the formation of the partial glycerides DAGs and MAGs (Figure 1); the second concept was an acidolysis of SB or PKO with hexanoic acid – serving as representative short‐chain fatty acid – to generate structured TAGs containing one or two equivalents of this short chain fatty acid (Figure 2). However, boots baby lotion n oil work best for caucacians because they are not produced for the African skin though some pple might be lucky to have a good result with them. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. 4, 17487 Greifswald, Germany. Regular price $6.00 $5.00. Additionally, shea butter has a high level of antioxidants that repair skin damage and allantoin that protects the skin from drying and aging. Among these vegetable lipids, coconut oil and PKO are unique as they mostly contain saturated medium chain fatty acids.9 Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) have been reported to possess higher solvent capacity for drugs than long chain triglycerides (LCT).10-12 SB is mainly composed of stearic and oleic acid, with stearic acid contributing to its solid texture and high melting point relative to PKO.13, 14 SB from Vitellaria paradoxa tree nuts has been extensively studied for its nutritional and cosmetic potentials and can be obtained from crushed shea nuts in several extraction and refining steps including and aqueous extraction step with hot water and separation of the fatty phase. The final product (anhydrous emulsion) was then stored at 20–25 °C for further use. It is well described that during random interesterification, saturated fatty acids of most vegetable oils, usually located at the outer sn‐1 and sn‐3 positions of the triglyceride may get transferred to the sn‐2 position.31 During lipid digestion in the upper GI tract stearic acid located at the sn‐2 position (2‐MAG) of triglycerides will be absorbed into the systemic circulation without digestion by the intestinal lipase since the enzyme typically digests at sn‐1 and sn‐3 positions.32, 33 Free stearic acid, in contrast, may complex with calcium and magnesium ions to form poorly absorbed soaps in the intestine.31 In our present investigation, modified SB may contain sn‐2‐bonded stearic acid and/or free stearic acid (FFA). Solubility results obtained in all other modified lipids were less favorable, i.e., Celecoxib solubility was lower than in the corresponding natural lipid. Take off the double boiler and continue to stir occasionally as it sets up. All vegetable fats and oils are TAGs composed of various saturated and unsaturated long chain fatty acids. PAID ENDORSEMENT DISCLOSURE: In order for us to support our website activities, we may receive monetary compensation or other types of remuneration for our endorsement, recommendation, testimonial and/or link to any products or services from this website. $0.75. Aliquots were taken at the start and end points of the reaction. There are many carrier oils to choose from. Since centrifugation could only be carried out at ambient temperature, shea butter samples, that required a higher temperature to maintain fluidity, were no centrifuged, but following equilibration at 50° C filtered through a prewarmed (50 °C) cellulose acetate syringe filter with 0.45 μm pore size (Whatman FP 30/0.45 CA‐S, GE Healthcare, Buckinghamshire, UK). In contrast, there was no significant (p < 0.05) increase in Celecoxib solubility in the modified PKOs. In summary, the synthesis of structured lipids from natural lipids via lipase‐catalyzed transesterification and their utilization in SEFs represents a promising novel approach for the solubilization of poorly soluble drug candidates. Experiments were performed as follows: first, in a 20 mL glass beaker, a 1:1 mixture (1.5 mL of each) of Tween 20 and Kolliphor RH 40 was prepared. Strategies for enriching erucic acid from Crambe abyssinica oil by improved Candida antarctica lipase A variants, European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. Enhancement of Lipase CAL‐A Selectivity by Protein Engineering for the Hydrolysis of Erucic Acid from Crambe Oil. Plus a simple spot treatment for existing acne. SB is predominantly composed of stearic acid and oleic acid, the major component of PKO is lauric acid.13, 14 The longer chain length of stearic acid and oleic acid may be more amenable to extensive esterification and hydrolysis than lauric acid. Approximately 40–50% of the currently marketed and more than 50% of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in development pipelines are poorly water soluble compounds that belong to class II or IV of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS).1, 2 Consequently, many of these compounds come along with limited and often highly variable bioavailability (BA) and place a significant burden on drug development.3 However, for many of these APIs, particularly for BCS class II compounds, there is a good chance of enhancing bioavailability and also decreasing its variability by utilizing drug delivery strategies ensuring that the API is readily and completely dissolved in the lumen of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
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