In the outermost "zone of attraction", which extends as far away from the focal animal as it is able to sense, the focal animal will seek to move towards a neighbour. The formation also makes communication easier and allows the birds to maintain visual contact with each other. Hoare, Ben (2009). A further key concept in the field of swarm intelligence is stigmergy. Each bird in a massive-size flock doesn’t have to be quite as vigilant as it would be if it was flying solo. “All the birds massed together create sensory overload for the predator,” notes Williams. Sometimes, if no decision is reached, the swarm will separate, some bees going in one direction; others, going in another. Individual insects seem to do their own thing without any central control, yet the colony as a whole behaves in a highly coordinated manner. By extension, the term "swarm" is applied also to inanimate entities which exhibit parallel behaviours, as in a robot swarm, an earthquake swarm, or a swarm of stars. It remains to be seen whether this applies to other animals. Flocking simulations have been used in many films to generate crowds which move realistically. This is a notable factor in the Central American migratory bottleneck. , Swarming in locusts has been found to be associated with increased levels of serotonin which causes the locust to change colour, eat much more, become mutually attracted, and breed much more easily.  The Eulerian approach views the swarm as a field, working with the density of the swarm and deriving mean field properties. Typically these studies use a genetic algorithm to simulate evolution over many generations. , Collective behaviour of a large number of (usually) self-propelled entities of similar size, "Swarm" redirects here. The action of this behavior takes two forms: maximization of distance from, and repulsion by, neighboring root apexes.  The whole set of robots can be considered as one single distributed system, in the same way an ant colony can be considered a superorganism, exhibiting swarm intelligence. Partially inspired by colonies of insects such as ants and bees, researchers are modelling the behaviour of swarms of thousands of tiny robots which together perform a useful task, such as finding something hidden, cleaning, or spying. Some scientists say they form the largest animal biomass on earth.  It is also likely that fish benefit from shoal membership through increased hydrodynamic efficiency. Nothing has changed in the roof. Satiated animals that had been feeding at the surface swim less actively and therefore sink below the mixed layer.  The birds flying at the tips and at the front are rotated in a timely cyclical fashion to spread flight fatigue equally among the flock members. Ants have highly developed sophisticated sign-based communication.  Stigmergy is a mechanism of indirect coordination between agents or actions. Tim Burton's Batman Returns was the first movie to make use of swarm technology for rendering, realistically depicting the movements of a group of bats using the boids system. The concept of emergence—that the properties and functions found at a hierarchical level are not present and are irrelevant at the lower levels–is often a basic principle behind self-organizing systems. The concept is employed in work on artificial intelligence. The mathematical modelling of flocking behaviour is a common technology, and has found uses in animation. , The behaviour of insects that live in colonies, such as ants, bees, wasps and termites, has always been a source of fascination for children, naturalists and artists.  This program simulates simple agents (boids) that are allowed to move according to a set of basic rules. It has few parameters to adjust, and a version that works well for a specific applications can also work well with minor modifications across a range of related applications. Later work suggested that swimming activity in krill varied with stomach fullness. The basic idea is that people will buy more of products that are seen to be popular, and several feedback mechanisms to get product popularity information to consumers are mentioned, including smart card technology and the use of Radio Frequency Identification Tag technology. Buy Now Black birds roosting on an electrical tower and power lines in East Lampeter Township. The Bible does not portray Blackbird in a good light.  These forces act to inform any number of growing "main" roots, which exhibit their own independent releases of inhibitory chemicals to establish appropriate spacing, thereby contributing to a swarm behavior pattern. It can be divided into natural swarm research studying biological systems and artificial swarm research studying human artefacts. , Swarming also describes groupings of some kinds of predatory bacteria such as myxobacteria. Each particle stores its position as well as the best solution it has achieved so far. The application of swarm principles to robots is called swarm robotics, while swarm intelligence refers to the more general set of algorithms.  The primary motivation for migration appears to be food; for example, some hummingbirds choose not to migrate if fed through the winter. The Mediterranean and other seas present a major obstacle to soaring birds, which must cross at the narrowest points.  From the perspective of the mathematical modeller, it is an emergent behaviour arising from simple rules that are followed by individuals and does not involve any central coordination.
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